Mexican Visas and Canadian beef

first_imgThe controversial summit was scheduled to be held last year but was cancelled amid, not only the Canadian-Mexican fight over the visa requirements, but also the Canadian-American dispute over the Keystone XL oil pipeline.However, it now comes less than a week after British voters decided to leave the European Union—a decision mirrored by a poll of Canadian voters which shows only 25 percent of them believes the North American Free Trade Agreement is good for this country, and remember NAFTA is what we got in 1994 after it was signed, sealed and delivered by another trio of amigos. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – It’s been a long time coming, but Mexico has finally agreed to open its markets to Canadian beef, a move the Executive Vice-President of the Canadian Cattlemen’s Association says could add $30 to $50 million to the nation’s industry. Mexican restrictions were a lingering side effect of alleged fears over mad-cow disease, and Dennis Laycraft says this means Canadian beef, which is more than 30 months old will finally start to find its way back into Mexico.- Advertisement -The news came as Mexico’s President arrived in Ottawa for the North American leaders’ summit with Prime Minister Trudeau and US President Obama.However, there was an agreement price for Canada to pay, and Mr. Trudeau delivered on an election campaign promise, to drop a major irritant in Canada’s relationship with Mexico imposed by the former Conservative government. As of December this year, the Liberals are reversing the Harper government’s 2009 decision to require visas for Mexican visitors.The so-called “three Amigos summit has been labelled by Jim Carr, the Winnipeg musician turned Minister of Natural Resources “An absolutely important moment,” and he adds, it’s occurring as, “We are all in a transition phase where we are reducing the reliance on fossil fuels and increasing our investments in renewable sources of energy and in innovation.”Advertisementlast_img read more

Darwinists Fight Over Niche Construction Theory

first_imgAccording to the Sacramento Bee last week, Roseville teachers who rejected the “Quality Science Education Policy” (see 06/04/2004 headline) did so because “there are no scientifically valid arguments against the theory of evolution.”  They must not be reading Nature.    In the current June 10 issue,1 three scientists say there has long been “vigorous debate” about basic evolutionary theory.  Laland, Odling-Smee and Feldman do not dispute whether evolution occurred, but their “niche construction” approach has touched off “strong and polarized responses” from evolutionists.  Though they consider this “fuss” a comparatively mild “spat” compared to earlier rows over lamarckism, punctuated equilibria and group selection, the theory of niche construction was heretical enough for Darwinist champion Richard Dawkins to term it “pernicious.”  (For more on niche construction, see 10/23/2003 headline fourth item, 03/17/2003 headline, or see its promoters’ website, www.nicheconstruction.com).  The basic idea behind niche construction is that adaptation is a two-way street:At the heart of the controversy lies the nature of causality in evolution.  Adaptation is conventionally seen as a process by which natural selection shapes organisms to fit pre-established environmental ‘templates’.  The causal arrow points in one direction only: it is environments, the source of selection, that determine the features of living creatures.    Yet it is also obvious that organisms bring about changes in environments.  Numerous animals manufacture nests, burrows, holes, webs and pupal cases.  Plants change the levels of atmospheric gases and modify nutrient cycles.  Fungi decompose organic matter, and bacteria engage in decomposition and nutrient fixation.  The standard view of evolution does not deny this, but treats niche construction as no more than the product of selection.    Conversely, from the niche-construction perspective, evolution is based on networks of causation and feedback.  Organisms drive environmental change and organism-modified environments subsequently select organisms.  The argument that niche construction does not play a causal role in evolution because it is partly a product of natural selection, makes no more sense than would the counter-proposal that natural selection can be disregarded because it is partly a product of niche construction.It is this robbing of natural selection of some of its power that seems to anger the conventional Darwinists.  Yet the niche constructionists provide a couple of examples that show how the modified environment must be taken into account when deciding how natural selection operates:“When a beaver builds a dam it not only affects the propagation of dam-building genes, but it must also transform the selection acting on a host of other beaver traits.”“Contemporary earthworms are adapting to a soil environment largely constructed by their ancestors.”First proposed in the 1980s by Richard Lewontin, niche construction was at first largely ignored.  Now, these authors feel it is “a fact of life.”  It is not just man that adapts himself, as Theodosius Dobzhansky used to claim.  All organisms modify the environment that selects their traits; this is a ubiquitous process, and can no longer be disputed.    It seems intuitively obvious.  Why the controversy, then?  Perhaps because niche construction “changes the evolutionary dynamic” and can actually put the brakes on natural selection:Niche construction can create new equilibria, affect the stability of others, generate unusual phenomena, such as momentum effects (where populations continue to evolve in the same direction after selection has stopped or reversed) and inertia effects (a delayed evolutionary response to selection), as well as opposite and catastrophic responses to selection.Such realizations might raise a host of new questions.  Nevertheless, the authors are optimistic, and suggest some fruitful lines of research.  A number of evolutionists are jumping on this bandwagon.  This “alternative panorama” may prove to be a “fleeting fad”; but if not, David Hull’s ominous prophecy may be fulfilled: “the result should be a massive reorientation of evolutionary theory.”1Kevin N. Laland, John Odling-Smee, and Marcus W. Feldman, “Causing a commotion: Niche construction: do the changes that organisms make to their habitats transform evolution and influence natural selection?” Nature 429, 609 (10 June 2004); doi:10.1038/429609a.To be fair before discussing this “spat” among evolutionists, it must be clarified that the parties on both sides are committed naturalists who affirm that unguided, unplanned, purposeless natural processes created humpback whales and hippo sunscreen out of bacteria.  All the combatants would have risen up in holy horror at Roseville to protest the insertion of any doubts about evolution into the biology curriculum.  That being understood, think about this controversy.  What damage does niche construction do to evolutionary theory?  Why would Dawkins call the reasoning “pernicious”?  What do the ongoing intramural battles tell us about the “fact” of evolution?    Each of these internal controversies – whether lamarckism, punctuated equilibria, group selection or niche construction – has questioned the core belief of Darwinists, that Charlie’s mechanism, a simple process so intuitively obvious it elevated bacteria-to-man evolution to the status of accepted truth, is perfectly capable of explaining everything.  Remember, it was the discovery of a plausible mechanism of evolution that made Charlie famous.  Apparently, quite a few evolutionists do not consider it all that plausible.  The fundamentalist Darwinists insist Charlie’s original dogma must be kept sacrosanct (see 05/31/2004 headline).  Yet ever since Darwin, heretical views have threatened the integrity of the myth.  Lamarckism is pretty much dead, falsified by experiment (even though Darwin himself became more Lamarckian in his old age—see February 2004 bio of Kelvin).  The radical view called punctuated equilibria arose because the fossil record, with its systematic gaps, did not support Darwinian gradualism.  Group selection was a sect that cast doubt on Darwin’s orthodoxy of individual selection.  We could add to the list the heresies of sympatric speciation and neo-Gaia.  Now, the cult of niche construction tends to complicate Dawkins’ life by telling him that the vectors of natural selection and the environment interact in complex ways, often opposing each other (see 03/17/2003 headline).    Whichever you think is the best storytelling plot, let’s ask some serious questions about this article and its relevance to the heated arguments occurring at school board meetings all around America, both in big cities and small towns, about the teaching of evolution.  Do you feel that any of the Darwin Party storytellers has a real, defensible, comprehensive account of how bacteria evolved into humans?  If so, why is it controversial to other evolutionists?  Why are the controversies heated enough for them to call each other names and question each others’ motives?  Has any of them provided a detailed account, with all the transitions that would be required, to explain the emergence of a single complex organ?  (See 08/20/2003 headline.)  Have the newly-acquired genomes of dozens of different organisms fulfilled what Darwinists predicted?  (See 06/09/2004 and 01/02/2003 headlines.)  Has the fossil record filled in the gaps that Darwin himself acknowledged were a major problem for his theory?  (See 06/02/2004 headline.)  Is there any reason why the eyes and ears of high school students should be shielded from these controversies and failings of Darwin’s theory?  Do these controversies have anything to do with Christianity or any other religion?  If not, why is the mantra “separation of church and state” invoked to subvert proposals for honest discussion about problems with evolutionary theory?  Can you think of any other reason, other than a sincere desire to educate students honestly, that the ACLU, the National Center for Science Education, and other Darwinist front groups are so adamant that no scientific criticisms of Darwinism are permissible in the schools?  If you engaged in these mental exercises, you just committed the very crime the Darwin-only side is trying to prevent.  You utilized critical thinking skills.(Visited 55 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Jay Baer on How Talk Triggers Can Revolutionize Your Word of Mouth Marketing, Episode #117

first_img Get the Free eBook! Want to master cold calling? Download my free eBook! Many would have you believe that cold calling is dead, but the successful have no fear of the phone; they use it to outproduce their competitors. Download Now Podcast: Play in new window | Download (Duration: 42:16 — 33.9MB)Subscribe: Apple Podcasts | Android | Email | Google Podcasts | RSSWord of mouth marketing is essential to the success of any business. Why is it then, that so many marketers don’t have a specific word of mouth marketing strategy? Jay Baer, the author of the new book “Talk Triggers,” joins Anthony on this episode of In The Arena to answer that exact question. He’ll walk you through 4 criteria to keep in mind when creating a talk trigger for your business, as well as share stories of how talk triggers have led to immense success for some of the top businesses in the United States. It’s an episode not to be missed – listen now!The persuasive power of offline #WordOfMouth #marketing is 43% higher than stand-alone posts on social media. Learn how to leverage WOM through #TalkTriggers on this episode of #InTheArena with @JayBaer, hosted by @iannarino.Click To TweetWhat are talk triggers and why are they important in word of mouth marketing?Jay explains talk triggers as, “something that you choose to do differently that creates conversation.” They’re not to be confused with marketing tactics. Rather, they’re operational choices that are designed to specifically generate discussions about your business. The single greatest way to grow any business is for your customers to do the growing for you through storytelling. You story arises from your talk trigger – are you giving your audience a story to tell?There is persuasive power in both online and offline conversations about your organizationRecent studies have shown that verbal marketing occurs equally online and offline. However, the persuasive power of offline word of mouth marketing is 43% higher than stand-alone posts on social media. The conversations that occur online and offline typically remain separate, and they are triggered by different things. Jay explains how a stellar talk trigger can be powerful both online and in person on this episode, and you don’t want to miss his insights.Creating a great #TalkTrigger to incorporate in your word of mouth #marketing strategy isn’t easy. Luckily, @JayBaer shares his top 4 criteria to follow when brainstorming ideas on this episode of #InTheArena hosted by @iannarino. Listen now!Click To TweetFollow these 4 criteria to craft a great talk triggerCreating a great talk trigger to incorporate into your word of mouth marketing strategy isn’t easy. Luckily, Jay shares his top 4 criteria to follow when brainstorming trigger ideas, and they’re all featured on this episode of In The Arena. But don’t miss the full story – be sure to check out his book on Amazon and wherever you buy books.Remarkable – it needs to be worthy of remarks – people don’t share mediocre storiesRelevant – it cannot simply be about gathering attention, because chatter only lasts for a short period of timeReasonable – different enough to attract attention, but not so “out there” that people are wary of the offerRepeatable – a talk trigger isn’t just a one-time stuntLearn from their success – both The Cheesecake Factory and Doubletree have stellar talk triggersTwo of the best examples of profitable talk triggers come from The Cheesecake Factory and Doubletree. At 5,940 words, the Factory’s menu is impressively long. But the menu is so much more than an expansive offering of entrees – it’s a specific marketing strategy. Their menu has become so infamous that when Jay and his team polled hundreds of Cheesecake Factory customers, they discovered that 38% had told someone else about the menu in the past 30 days, without being asked or prompted. This allows the Factory to spend $276 million less per year on marketing than the Olive Garden or Outback Steakhouse.Consider also Doubletree’s goal to give hotel guests the warmest welcome in the hotel industry, complete with a fresh, warm chocolate chip cookie upon arrival. Their cookies fit within the context of what they do, and they’ve been doing it for over 30 years. They sustainably delight their customers time after time, and that’s the truest sign of a successful talk trigger.“The single greatest way to grow any #business is for your customers to do the growing for you through #storytelling.” Hear more from #marketing expert @JayBaer on this episode of #InTheArena, hosted by @iannarino. Listen here! Click To TweetOutline of this great episode Jay Baer, digital marketing guru, on why he wrote a book on word of mouth marketing The persuasive power of online and in-person word of mouth marketing What are talk triggers and why are they important? Your talk triggers don’t have to be huge gestures – follow these 4 criteria to craft a great talk trigger Why is being relevant important in your talk trigger? Reasonability is just as important when designing a talk trigger Talk trigger success comes from repeatable strategiesResources & Links mentioned in this episodeTalk Triggers websiteConvince and Convert websiteJay’s websiteBOOK: “Hug Your Haters: How to Embrace Complaints and Keep Your Customers”BOOK: “Talk Triggers: The Complete Guide to Creating Customers with Word of Mouth”BOOK: “Contagious: Why Things Catch On”Ep 53, “Jay Baer on Hugging Your Haters and the Real Value of Stellar Customer Service”SPONSOR: MailTag.IODufl brandConnect with Jay on LinkedInFollow Jay on TwitterFollow Jay on FacebookThe theme song “Into the Arena” is written and produced by Chris Sernel. You can find it on SoundcloudConnect with AnthonyWebsite: www.TheSalesBlog.comYoutube: www.Youtube.com/IannarinoFacebook: https://www.facebook.com/iannarinoTwitter: https://twitter.com/iannarinoGoogle Plus: https://plus.google.com/+SAnthonyIannarinoLinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/iannarino Tweets you can use to share this episodeAuthor & #marketing expert @JayBaer explains how a stellar #TalkTrigger can be powerful both online & in person on this ep of #InTheArena, and you don’t want to miss his insights. Listen now – your word of mouth marketing strategy will thank you. @iannarinoClick To Tweet#TalkTriggers aren’t #marketing tactics. Rather, they’re operational choices that are designed to specifically generate discussions about your business. Learn more from expert @JayBaer on #InTheArena, hosted by @iannarino.Click To TweetSubscribe toIn the ArenaApple PodcastsGoogle PodcastsAndroidby EmailRSSOr subscribe with your favorite app by using the address belowlast_img read more

Veteran Congress leader Shantaram Naik is dead

first_imgPanaji: Former Rajya Sabha MP and senior Congress leader Shantaram Naik passed away on Saturday morning after a massive heart attack. He was 72. He was till recently president of Goa Pradesh Congress. “He complained of chest pain, after which he was rushed to a private hospital in Margao in South Goa. But he was declared brought dead,” Goa Congress president Girish Chodankar told presspersons here.Naik’s last rites will be conducted on Sunday at 10.30 a.m. at his native village of Cuncolim in south Goa, the Congress party said in a statement.Mr. Chodankar said Congress president Rahul Gandhi in his condolence message said, “I’m sorry to hear about the passing away of Shri Shantaram Naik, former Goa Congress Chief, MP and senior Congress leader, who played an important role in the battle for Goa’s statehood. My condolences to his family in their time of grief. May his soul rest in peace.”Goa Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar, in his message from the US said he was deeply saddened by the passing away of Congress leader and former Rajya Sabha MP from Goa and conveyed heartfelt condolences to the bereaved family.Naik, last of the few original Congresspersons from Goa, headed the Goa Congress until recently, represented the State in Rajya Sabha for two consecutive terms — from 2005 to 2011, and from 2011 to 2017. Beginning his political career in 1967, Naik joined the Congress as a party worker and successfully contested the North Goa Lok Sabha seat in 1984. He was also instrumental in the passage of the Bill that led to Goa’s statehood on May 30, 1987.last_img read more

Court frames charges against Sunny Deol

first_imgA railway court here has framed charges under the Railways Act against Gurdaspur MP Sunny Deol and film actress Karisma Kapoor in a 22-year-old case of alleged chain pulling in a train at Naraina station in Rajasthan during the shooting for a film. The two actors challenged the order through a revision petition in a sessions court on Wednesday.Mr. Deol and Ms. Kapoor had allegedly entered the Naraina railway station, near Phulera Junction, in 1997 and stopped the 2413-A Uplink Express by pulling its chain, which delayed the train by 25 minutes.last_img read more

Durham tells Meralco teammates: Remember the pain of losing to Ginebra

first_imgRobredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo LATEST STORIES Kaya grabs lead after rout of Ilocos FC Just like Elite, the Elasto Painters and the Batang Pier all bowed out early last year and didn’t make it to the playoffs.Arnold Van Opstal will debut with the Batang Pier in the lane after San Miguel traded the Filipino-German to the Batang Pier for shooting guard Von Pessumal.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next View comments Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ National Coffee Research Development and Extension Center brews the 2nd National Coffee Education Congress Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim Trump strips away truth with hunky topless photo tweetcenter_img FEU Auditorium’s 70th year celebrated with FEU Theater Guild’s ‘The Dreamweavers’ Church, environmentalists ask DENR to revoke ECC of Quezon province coal plant The reigning best import of the season-ending conference is raring to complete the task of winning it all as the Bolts begin their campaign against the Blackwater Elite on Friday at the Smart Araneta Coliseum.“We came up short last time and we will make the most out of this opportunity to contend again for the title,” said Durham, who led Meralco to its first-ever Finals last year before losing to crowd favorite Barangay Ginebra.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSWin or don’t eat: the Philippines’ poverty-driven, world-beating pool starsGlobalPort is also looking to go deep into the playoffs of the import-flavored tournament as the Batang Pier parade former Georgetown Hoya Jabril Trawick opposite the Rain Or Shine Elasto Painters in the 7 p.m. match.Challenging Trawick at the low blocks is JD Weatherspoon, who will suit up for the Elasto Painters after previous stints in Scandinavia, particularly in Norway and Finland. Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Allen Durham feels there’s unfinished business the Meralco Bolts have to settle in the PBA Governors’ Cup.ADVERTISEMENT Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ MOST READ Before he left the Bolts in the previous Governors Cup, Durham told his teammates not to forget that miserable feeling of losing their Game 6 defeat at the hands of the Kings.They won the opener of that best-of-seven series and even went up, 2-1, but collapsed in the last three games, fueling the fire in Durham to redeem the Bolts this time around.“We were hungry back then and I hope we still feel the same way in this tournament,” said Durham.The Elite will bank heavily on Trevis Simpson in the conference that set a height limit of 6-foot-5 for imports.Simpson, untouched in the 2013 NBA Draft, is an athletic wingman who played pro ball in Greece before Blackwater tapped his services.ADVERTISEMENTlast_img read more

Google viral memo reportedly alleges discrimination against pregnant women

first_imgGoogle employees held a worldwide walkout last year.  Getty A memo written by a Google employee, which alleges she was targeted with discrimination and retaliation during her pregnancy, has gone viral within the company, according to a report Monday by Motherboard. The 2,300-word memo, titled “I’m Not Returning to Google After Maternity Leave, and Here is Why,” was posted on internal message boards at the company and viewed by more than 10,000 people, Motherboard said. The document, which was posted by Motherboard with the author’s name redacted, says the writer’s manager had made inappropriate comments about pregnant women in the past. When the writer — who was also a manager — reported her own manager to human resources, she reportedly experienced retaliation. When the writer was getting ready to go on maternity leave herself, she says her boss said she wouldn’t be guaranteed her managerial role when she returned. “I’m sharing this statement because I hope it informs needed change in how Google handles discrimination, harassment and retaliation,” the memo reads. “Also, if anything similar has happened to you, know that you’re not alone.”Google on Monday didn’t address the memo, but said it doesn’t condone retaliation. “We prohibit retaliation in the workplace and publicly share our very clear policy,” a Google spokeswoman said in a statement. “To make sure that no complaint raised goes unheard at Google, we give employees multiple channels to report concerns, including anonymously, and investigate all allegations of retaliation.”Google has faced allegations of retaliation in the past. In November, Google employees held a massive walkout over the company’s handling of sexual harassment allegations targeted at key executives. Two of the walkout organizers, Claire Stapleton and Meredith Whittaker, said they faced retaliation from management for their organizing efforts. Stapleton departed the company in June and Whittaker left last month.  Post a comment 0 Tags Share your voice Google Alphabet Inc. Tech Industrylast_img read more

Major shakeup Atanu Chakraborty is new Economic Affairs Secretary Subhash Garg named

first_imgChakraborty is now the divestment department secretary and was overseeing a series of privatisation efforts of the government. TwitterIn a major bureaucratic reshuffle, the Modi-led BJP government has shifted the current Finance Secretary Subhash Chandra Garg to the Power Ministry. Atanu Chakraborty, who is the current Secretary for Department of Investment and Public Asset Management (DIPAM) will be the next Secretary of Department of Economic Affairs, a coveted position in the finance ministry.Chakraborty will replace Subhash Chandra Garg. The changes would come into effect immediately.Garg will replace Ajay Kumar Bhalla as the Power Secretary. Bhalla has been appointed as the Officer on Special Duty (OSD) in the Ministry of Home Affairs.The secretaries are the top bureaucrats and are placed next to ministers in the hierarchy.Chakraborty is now the divestment department secretary and was overseeing a series of privatisation efforts of the government, including the sale of Air India.One of Chakraborty’s biggest challenges in his new post will be to launch India’s first sovereign overseas bond this year, expected to worth about $10 billion. The move has been criticised by some prominent economists.Garg was on the six-member panel deciding on the transfer of “excess reserves” from the Reserve Bank of India, or central bank. Sources said Garg had opposed the panel’s move to transfer a smaller amount to the central government.However, this is not the first time the Narendra Modi-led NDA government has made such major changes. Back in 2014, after the Modi-led government took charge for the first time, the government transferred the then Finance Secretary Arvind Mayaram to the tourism department.(Inputs from agencies)last_img read more

Study shows disorder may cause an increase stereotyping

Study shows disorder may cause an increase stereotyping

first_img Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Caucasian travelers who were asked to fill out a questionnaire in an orderly train station generally sat closer to a Dutch-African person, compared to when they were asked in a messy train station. Image courtesy of Siegwart Lindenberg Where am I? How our brain works as a GPS device Citation: Study shows disorder may cause an increase stereotyping (2011, April 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-disorder-stereotyping.html (PhysOrg.com) — A study performed by Dutch social scientists Diederik Stapel and Siegwart Lindenberg, of Tilburg University in the Netherlands, suggests that people may resort to stereotyping to cope with the stress associated with disorder or chaos. In their paper, published in Science magazine, the two draw from a series of experiments they conducted, two in the real world and three in the lab, which they assert proves that human beings are more prone to stereotyping and even discrimination when exposed to a messy, chaotic, or even unkempt environment. In the first study, volunteers at a messy (due to a workers strike) train station were asked to sit in one of several available seats while they filled out a survey. Unbeknownst to them, tabs were kept on how far they sat from the only other person in the group of chairs, a black man. They then repeated the study after the strike was over and found that when the station was messy, the volunteers (all white) tended to sit farther away from the black man than they did when the station was neat. Furthermore, they also found that the volunteers answered the survey questions more strongly stereotypically when in the messy environment, then when in the clean one; such as when asked to rate people of different races by traits that might be ascribed to them.In a second field study, volunteers were again asked to fill out a survey (this time for a small amount of money as payment) but this time the environment was a sidewalk in a nice neighborhood. In the first go-round, an “abandoned” bike was placed nearby, some cobblestones pulled to look haphazard, and a car was parked up onto the curb; all to create a somewhat messy environment. After filling out the survey, the volunteers were asked if they would donate some of the money they had earned to helping restore blighted, mostly minority neighborhoods. In the messy environment, the volunteers offered on average, a dollar less than those on the clean street.Next, the researchers conducted three lab experiments where volunteers were shown an unkempt bookshelf, a series of flash cards with words of discord on them and sheets of paper with unordered shapes displayed, before being asked to fill out a survey; and then repeated the exercises with a neat bookshelf, flash cards with calm words and sheets of paper with ordered shapes on them. In all cases the volunteers showed an increased tendency to revert to stereotyping.The authors then conclude in their paper that this proves that messy, crumbling poor neighborhoods contribute to stereotyping, racism and discrimination; and if governments would only clean up such environments, a reduction in such attitudes would surely follow. Unfortunately, as many critics of the paper have pointed out, the study doesn’t have a way to measure if the effects of disorder are short or long term, or if people in the real world who grow up in such an environment don’t see their surroundings as normal and therefore would not respond as did the volunteers in the study. © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: Coping with Chaos: How Disordered Contexts Promote Stereotyping and Discrimination, Science 8 April 2011: Vol. 332 no. 6026 pp. 251-253. DOI: 10.1126/science.1201068last_img read more