Study shows disorder may cause an increase stereotyping

Study shows disorder may cause an increase stereotyping

first_img Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Caucasian travelers who were asked to fill out a questionnaire in an orderly train station generally sat closer to a Dutch-African person, compared to when they were asked in a messy train station. Image courtesy of Siegwart Lindenberg Where am I? How our brain works as a GPS device Citation: Study shows disorder may cause an increase stereotyping (2011, April 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-disorder-stereotyping.html (PhysOrg.com) — A study performed by Dutch social scientists Diederik Stapel and Siegwart Lindenberg, of Tilburg University in the Netherlands, suggests that people may resort to stereotyping to cope with the stress associated with disorder or chaos. In their paper, published in Science magazine, the two draw from a series of experiments they conducted, two in the real world and three in the lab, which they assert proves that human beings are more prone to stereotyping and even discrimination when exposed to a messy, chaotic, or even unkempt environment. In the first study, volunteers at a messy (due to a workers strike) train station were asked to sit in one of several available seats while they filled out a survey. Unbeknownst to them, tabs were kept on how far they sat from the only other person in the group of chairs, a black man. They then repeated the study after the strike was over and found that when the station was messy, the volunteers (all white) tended to sit farther away from the black man than they did when the station was neat. Furthermore, they also found that the volunteers answered the survey questions more strongly stereotypically when in the messy environment, then when in the clean one; such as when asked to rate people of different races by traits that might be ascribed to them.In a second field study, volunteers were again asked to fill out a survey (this time for a small amount of money as payment) but this time the environment was a sidewalk in a nice neighborhood. In the first go-round, an “abandoned” bike was placed nearby, some cobblestones pulled to look haphazard, and a car was parked up onto the curb; all to create a somewhat messy environment. After filling out the survey, the volunteers were asked if they would donate some of the money they had earned to helping restore blighted, mostly minority neighborhoods. In the messy environment, the volunteers offered on average, a dollar less than those on the clean street.Next, the researchers conducted three lab experiments where volunteers were shown an unkempt bookshelf, a series of flash cards with words of discord on them and sheets of paper with unordered shapes displayed, before being asked to fill out a survey; and then repeated the exercises with a neat bookshelf, flash cards with calm words and sheets of paper with ordered shapes on them. In all cases the volunteers showed an increased tendency to revert to stereotyping.The authors then conclude in their paper that this proves that messy, crumbling poor neighborhoods contribute to stereotyping, racism and discrimination; and if governments would only clean up such environments, a reduction in such attitudes would surely follow. Unfortunately, as many critics of the paper have pointed out, the study doesn’t have a way to measure if the effects of disorder are short or long term, or if people in the real world who grow up in such an environment don’t see their surroundings as normal and therefore would not respond as did the volunteers in the study. © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: Coping with Chaos: How Disordered Contexts Promote Stereotyping and Discrimination, Science 8 April 2011: Vol. 332 no. 6026 pp. 251-253. DOI: 10.1126/science.1201068last_img read more

Life and death of Triceratops Fossilized tooth marks shed light on TRexs

Life and death of Triceratops Fossilized tooth marks shed light on TRexs

first_imgCredit: Nate Carroll 2012 Citation: Life, and death, of Triceratops: Fossilized tooth marks shed light on T.Rex’s gruesome hunting practices (2012, October 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-life-death-triceratops-fossilized-tooth.html Scientists have for years believed that T.Rex, killed and ate Triceratops. But until now, most research has focused on the body of the Triceratops. In this new study, Fowler et al. concentrated on bite marks found on the skulls of 18 fossil specimens found in Montana’s Hell Creek Formation.None of the bite marks showed any signs of healing, suggesting they occurred after the animals’ deaths. Initially, the researchers couldn’t explain why a predator such as a Tyrannosaurus would bother with a skull, as there wasn’t much to eat in that that area. But upon further review, the researchers discovered deep parallel grooves in the bone indicating that an animal had been pulling on it, with its teeth sliding along the bone’s surface.Triceratops had a large bony frill around the back of the skull to protect the sensitive neck and throat. The researchers believe that after killing its victim, Tyrannosaurus would pull on the frill until the head came off, allowing easy access to the large, meaty neck muscles.In addition to the parallel groves, the researchers also noted bite marks on the ball socket joints that allowed the Triceratops to move its head around—marks that could only come about if the head were removed.Fowler also said the team had found evidence of facial nibbling by Tyrannosaurus on the skulls of the Triceratops, indicating the dinosaur had a taste for the more delicate meat found there. That finding led the researchers to wonder if T.Rex ate in different ways as it grew older. Adults with thick teeth would have been able to tear the head off of a Triceratops, whereas younger T.Rex might have been satisfied with nibbling on softer, easier access points, thereby preserving their less-developed teeth. Fowler added that he and his colleagues plan to continue their investigation before submitting the present findings for publication. © 2012 Phys.org Explore further Triceratops controversy continues (Phys.org)—Paleontologist Denver Fowler has told a group of attendees at the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology’s annual meeting that he, along with colleagues from the Museum of the Rockies, has uncovered evidence that suggests Tyrannosaurus Rex pulled the head off Triceratops victims to allow access to nutritious neck meat. More information: www.denverfowler.com/publicati … owler_et_al_2012.htm This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Air pollution decline in Middle East attributed to turmoil and unrest

Air pollution decline in Middle East attributed to turmoil and unrest

first_img(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from institutions in Germany and Saudi Arabia has found that pollution levels over several major cities in the Middle East are dropping and have concluded that it is due to economic and political unrest and war. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the team describes how they compared satellite data with historical records to show that harsh conditions in some parts of the Middle East have led to less pollution being emitted into the air. Explore further Under normal circumstances, as countries advance, the amount of pollution they emit increases—this was seen in the Middle East, the authors note, in the years after satellite monitoring began in the mid 1990’s. Levels of nitrogen dioxide rose as the number of cars on the road increased, and as more electricity was produced by coal fired power plants. But, they note, things changed, starting around 2010—the period during what came to be known as the Arab Spring. Governments were overthrown and in some cases, chaos ensued. That chaos led to a lowering of economic standards in many Middle Eastern cities, which meant less fuel was being burned by cars or used in electricity production. Some cities have seen declines of 20 to 50 percent, though the researchers note that in some cases, the declines are due to legislation put in place to reduce pollution.Cities seeing the most change tended to be in areas of severe upheaval, the team notes, such as those in Iraq and Syria, where civil war and insurgencies have driven down economic output, and lessened the amount of driving in cars and use of electricity. Notably, the team saw that over the same period, pollution levels in Lebanon actually rose 20 to 30 percent, due they believe, to refugees pouring into the country from nearby Syria. Another example of migration impacting pollution levels, the team notes, is over parts of Bagdad, where the Islamic State has been active—pollution levels have been falling, but rising in nearby safer places. More stable but still experiencing problems was Tehran, suffering under the impact of economic sanctions meant to stop its nuclear ambitions—that city has also been seeing pollution levels falls. Drops in levels in the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, on the other hand, were attributed to controls put in place to specifically reduce pollution. Journal information: Science Advances More information: “Abrupt recent trend changes in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide over the Middle East.” Science Advances  21 Aug 2015: DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500498AbstractNitrogen oxides, released from fossil fuel use and other combustion processes, affect air quality and climate. From the mid-1990s onward, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been monitored from space, and since 2004 with relatively high spatial resolution by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities. We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East. Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century.Press release China air pollution levels fall: Greenpeacelast_img read more

Sandia researchers offer explanation for hissing and popping noises heard from meteors

Sandia researchers offer explanation for hissing and popping noises heard from meteors

first_img(Phys.org)—A team of researchers working at Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico has found an explanation for the variety of sounds people hear when witnessing a falling meteor—sounds that should not be heard until minutes later due to the long distances involved. In their paper published in Scientific Reports, the team describes experiments they conducted with transducer materials and what they learned by doing so. Citation: Sandia researchers offer explanation for hissing and popping noises heard from meteors (2017, February 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-02-sandia-explanation-hissing-noises-heard.html Journal information: Scientific Reports Explore further © 2017 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.center_img Meteor seen from the site of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). Credit: ESO/C. Malin Over the years, witnesses of falling meteors have reported hearing a wide variety of noises that appear to come from the rapidly descending fireball. While it is not surprising that meteors would emit noise as they streak through the Earth’s atmosphere, it is surprising that they would be heard during the meteor’s descent because of the distance. Meteors are generally first noticed as they begin burning many miles high in the atmosphere—and most land equally far away from witnesses. So, how could people hear emitted sounds as they are being made? That was what the team at Sandia Labs sought to answer.The team began with a theory that the noise was not actually generated by the meteor itself, but by nearby objects. They believed the bright light generated by the fireball comes in pulses and that those pulses cause a rapid rise in the temperature of the air through which they travel. The nearly instant air pressure change would result in pressure waves, which would be converted into acoustic waves when they crashed into what the team described as dielectric transducers—heat absorbing objects such as leaves, hair or even a shirt someone was wearing.To test their theory, the researchers studied photographs and video of meteors and plotted the intensity of the light generated. Then they calculated the likely acoustic waves that would result if they struck various objects. Next, they fired similar light pulses at materials to see if noises similar to those reported by meteor witnesses could be heard. They report that such sounds were, indeed, generated, suggesting that their theory was correct—the first to attempt to explain meteor noise due to light. They have called it a “photoacoustic hypothesis.” Geminids meteor shower peaks Tuesday amid full moon More information: Richard Spalding et al. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors, Scientific Reports (2017). DOI: 10.1038/srep41251AbstractConcurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with −11 to −13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally. Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that −12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. The photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs.last_img read more

Nanomotor guided inside a living cell using a magnetic field

Nanomotor guided inside a living cell using a magnetic field

center_img More information: Malay Pal et al. Maneuverability of Magnetic Nanomotors Inside Living Cells, Advanced Materials (2018). DOI: 10.1002/adma.201800429AbstractSpatiotemporally controlled active manipulation of external micro‐/nanoprobes inside living cells can lead to development of innovative biomedical technologies and inspire fundamental studies of various biophysical phenomena. Examples include gene silencing applications, real‐time mechanical mapping of the intracellular environment, studying cellular response to local stress, and many more. Here, for the first time, cellular internalization and subsequent intracellular manipulation of a system of helical nanomotors driven by small rotating magnetic fields with no adverse effect on the cellular viability are demonstrated. This remote method of fuelling and guidance limits the effect of mechanical transduction to cells containing external probes, in contrast to ultrasonically or chemically powered techniques that perturb the entire experimental volume. The investigation comprises three cell types, containing both cancerous and noncancerous types, and is aimed toward analyzing and engineering the motion of helical propellers through the crowded intracellular space. The studies provide evidence for the strong anisotropy, heterogeneity, and spatiotemporal variability of the cellular interior, and confirm the suitability of helical magnetic nanoprobes as a promising tool for future cellular investigations and applications. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Engineers build world’s smallest, fastest nanomotor A team of researchers at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore has developed a type of nanomotor that can be guided inside of a living cell using an external magnetic field. In their paper published in the journal Advanced Materials, the group describes their nanomotor, how it works, and possible uses for it.last_img read more

Sowing the seeds of the future in the Capital

Sowing the seeds of the future in the Capital

first_imgiSEED – the Indian School for Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development, a unique educational institution offering India’s first full time 1-year post-graduate level program in Entrepreneurship was launched on Thursday. The announcement was made in the presence of K.H. Muniyappa, Hon’ble Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. Founded by a group of professionals from institutes of national repute, iSEED’s vision is to be a world-class educational hub offering a variety of long and short-term programs for budding entrepreneurs and startups at various stages of their journey. iSEED will commence its flagship 1-year Post Graduate Program in Entrepreneurship from June 2014. The Institute’s short-term courses will begin this year. The founders of iSEED include Harsh Mishra, a Strategy and Entrepreneurship Professor at MDI Gurgaon, Anil Misra, Finance Professor at MDI Gurgaon, and Sanjeeva Shivesh, former Strategy Consultant from Booz & Co, aentrepreneur and a visiting faculty at MDI Gurgaon.last_img read more

Merging art and photography

Merging art and photography

first_imgThe theme explains Sa Re Ga Ma as the Indian musical notes depicting different life forms, dancing to the rhythm of divergent tunes of the life song in India.The artiste experimented with photography on canvas that relates with theme of exploring metaphysical consciousness in life. Her canvases included portraits, landscape, flowers and monuments. All these moments were captured by Pandey while travelling to different parts of world. The artiste believes that there is a world beyond material things, that is of spirituality hence, her pictures reflect things like the third eye concept, the seven chakras, a meditating girl and more. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’A part of the exhibition was based on nature photography depicting its tangible and non-tangible element. Pandey’s canvas makes an individual think beyond the materialistic world. It symbolise true oneness and metaphysical state.Artiste’s work was also exhibited in the United States during Summer with the same theme that reflects the different musical nodes in life. Pandey is also an international photographer and writer. Her work are published in national and international magazines. She has worked with various international development agencies working for women and children. ‘Pandey’s works have given life to inanimate forms, making them come alive,’ said Prasad Kariyawasam, high commissioner of Sri Lanka while inaugurating the event at the  Open Palm Court in IHC.last_img read more

Stood on an agents desk and sang to get noticed

Stood on an agents desk and sang to get noticed

first_imgShe is electric. On stage and otherwise. We caught up with her at the wake of the Storm Festival that just wrapped up. Here are excerpts from the interview…Tell us about your journey. I have risen here and fallen there into clouds and became the rain. What inspires you to create music, who are your idols?What is inspiring is musicians who play music just for itself, not in order to win some bogus popularity contest. I am not sure if it’s a good idea to idolize anyone. It just seems to lead to trouble in the history of humankind. I admire all great musicians, as they all reach out to you in ways that are so different and individual. Musicians with a memorable intensity and vision: Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Fela Kuti, Bjork, Jimi Hendrix, The Doors, Lou Reed. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Tell us about your first break and how the journey has been since.I walked into an agent’s office in Sydney, stood on his desk and belted out a song. I was seventeen. I have been gigging ever since.Some memorable moments for you?My most memorable musical experience was playing onstage in London with a big group of Sufi Qawwals from Lahore along with musicians from Rajasthan and London and feeling the whole place lift off.What songs top your playlist? Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixI am listening to L.A. Woman by The Doors right now, but to be honest; I am enjoying my own freshly minted album Queen Between at the moment… playing it to my friends. It’s a happy and proud moment every musician who makes a record knows.What suggestions would you have for newbies who want to make it big?I think it’s fair to say that all musicians totally suck when they begin, so give yourself time to develop. Rest assured, in a year’s time you will be much better than you are now, so be patient but keep working and changing. What I always say is you will know you’re own breakthrough artistically when you have one song that really clicks. Meanwhile, anybody can record nowadays… try to test your music on people live. Distill the essence of what you have – one great song at a time but don’t overwork things; keep moving. It’s better to write one good song than a hundred mediocre ones.  My real advice to them is to ask themselves what exactly are you trying make ‘big’?  Music is a connection point so think about what it is you want to connect.  Be original. Be brave. Be crazy. Be adventurous. If you sound like just anybody else keep it as a hobby. Think big and small! We need music that is not the same old thing. Try not to peddle fake sentiments in order to make it because if you do you will get there and it will be meaningless. Lastly, everyone needs a producer; it’s a role play thing.What is on the cards for the Storm Festival?We are going to play with Kutle Kahn form Jaislamer in Rasjathan, who is an amazing collaborator with a super energy. I think we will really have a great time playing together and it’s an interesting contrast.last_img read more

Mamatas development work to be poll plank of Dulal Das for Maheshtala

Mamatas development work to be poll plank of Dulal Das for Maheshtala

first_imgKolkata: Trinamool Congress candidate Dulal Das is banking on the all-round development work of Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, as he hopes to win the Maheshtala by-election scheduled to be held on Monday.The Maheshtala Assembly seat in South 24-Parganas district fell vacant after the death of its two-time representative Kasturi Das of Trinamool in February this year. Das has been pitched against a Congress-Left Alliance and BJP that has emerged as a distant second in the recently concluded Panchayat elections. The CPI(M)-Congress alliance had fielded Pravash Chowdhury while BJP’s candidate is Sujit Ghosh. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights”The Panchayat election results have shown clearly that people of the state are with the development of Mamata Banerjee. Maheshtala is also not an exception. In the last few years, a development wave has swept here. I have been campaigning, highlighting the development work that has taken place and will follow in the next few years,” Das said.According to Das, who is the sitting chairman of Maheshtala Municipality, 80 percent of the sprucing up of the roads has already been completed, along with complete overhaul of the water distribution system. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killed”Urban Development and Municipal Affairs minister Firhad Hakim has assured me to construct an intake jetty at Pujali for treatment of water, so that water from Pujali can also be used in Maheshtala,” Das maintained.Major real estate development like Eden City and Bata Riverside has changed the topography of the area. “The 19 km flyover from Jinjira Baazar to Bata will make the connectivity much better,” he added.The seat had been a CPI(M) bastion till 2011, when it lost to Trinamool Congress, which grabbed power in the state. Dulal’s wife late Kasturi Das defeated CPI(M)’s candidate by more than 26,000 votes. In 2016, she returned to defeat the party again by 12,452 votes. In contrast, the BJP received 3,689 votes in 2011 and 14,909 votes in 2016. The bypoll has been scheduled for May 28 and counting will be on May 31.The Maheshtala Assembly constituency has 35 wards of Maheshtala municipality. However, wards from 1 to 7, 9 and 10 have gone out of the municipality area because of delimitation.It may be mentioned that the 26 wards, starting from the border of Metiabruz-Garden Reach up to Shyampur, have a sharp divide not only population-wise, but also in terms of social status and economic sustainability. The area from Shyampur to Batanagar has a dominance of Hindu population, which thrives on service and business, while the 45 percent Muslim population living on the both sides of the railway track from Brace-Bridge to Akra, Memanpur and Dakghar is mainly dependent on the garment industry.last_img read more