The “evolution of antibiotic resistance” is a staple in the creation-evolution debates, providing evolutionists with a living illustration of evolution taking place right before our eyes. What if all the information for antibiotic resistance, however, already exists in a library from which bacteria can find it? That seems to be the implication of a study by D’Carlo et al. in Science.1 A Canadian biochemical research team decided to survey the techniques of antibiotic resistance already present in soil bacteria. They were astonished. Every antimicrobial medicine, including some only recently developed, had a defensive weapon ready for it:This study provides an analysis of the antibiotic resistance potential of soil microorganisms. The frequency of high-level resistance seen in the study to antibiotics that have for decades served as gold-standard treatments, as well as those only recently approved for human use, is remarkable. No class of antibiotic was spared with respect to bacterial target or natural or synthetic origin. Although this study does not provide evidence for the direct transfer of resistance elements from the soil resistome to pathogenic bacteria, it identifies a previously underappreciated density and concentration of environmental antibiotic resistance. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)The authors could not determine whether “The presence of antibiotics in the environment has promoted the acquisition or independent evolution of highly specific resistance elements in the absence of innate antibiotic production,” and are not sure whether today’s resistant pathogens acquired their resistance from soil organisms. They could not rule it out, however: “The soil could thus serve as an underrecognized reservoir for resistance that has already emerged or has the potential to emerge in clinically important bacteria.” A frightening implication is that no matter what agents we throw at them, bacteria may be able to check out a defense from this “environmental resistome.” Alexander Tomasz commented on this study in the same issue of Science.2 He said that, “Actually, the majority of the most effective antibiotic-resistance mechanisms in human pathogens are acquired,” or gained not by evolution but by lateral gene transfer. The acquired resistance, he says, is superior to that gained by mutations:The superiority of such acquired mechanisms is illustrated by the contrast between Staphylococcus aureus strains that have decreased susceptibility to vancomycin through mutations (so-called VISA strains) as compared to VRSA strains, S. aureus that acquired a complete vancomycin-resistance gene complex via the transposon Tn1546. The VISA strains have low-level resistance (the minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin is 6 to 12 g/ml), are often associated with reduced oxacillin resistance, and show abnormal cell wall synthesis; the multiple transcriptional changes documented by DNA microarray analysis reflect the complexity of this mechanism. In contrast, in VRSA strains, the Tn1546-based mechanism produces high-level vancomycin resistance (with a minimal inhibitory concentration of more than 500 g/ml) that does not interfere with oxacillin resistance, and cell wall synthesis proceeds with a depsipeptide cell wall precursor specific to these strains.Though the transfer mechanism is not known, “Clearly, mobilization of a resistance mechanism must involve ‘packaging’ into a plasmid, phage, or some transposable element,” he believes. Tomasz called the sheer variety of resistance mechanisms catalogued by D’Carlo et al. “remarkable”. It appears that microorganisms might not only make antibiotic weapons in profusion, but also make a plethora of defenses against them.1D’Costa et al., “Sampling the Antibiotic Resistome,” Science, 20 January 2006: Vol. 311. no. 5759, pp. 374 – 377, DOI: 10.1126/science.1120800.2Alexander Tomasz, “Weapons of Microbial Drug Resistance Abound in Soil Flora,” Science, 20 January 2006: Vol. 311. no. 5759, pp. 342 – 343, DOI: 10.1126/science.1123982.Neither of these papers ruled out that the resistance mechanisms have always been present in the gene pool. If so, then the claim that bacteria “evolve” resistance to antibiotics is negated. Bacteria may simply find access to an existing library of information, a “resistome” that, coupled with a packaging and delivery mechanism (plasmids and transposons), confers the resistance that previously appeared to evolve out of thin air. Notice that the resistance conferred by mutations harms the organism. The case cited by Tomasz reduced the fitness of the organism by weakening its cell wall. Mutationally-gained resistance is like the illustration Lee Spetner gave: cutting off a man’s arms makes him resistant to handcuffs. In a population of prisoners being handcuffed, this person would be the fittest, but only in a specific environment and at the cost of overall fitness. In the wild, he would be at a disadvantage. Scott Minnich also illustrated this type of bacterial resistance in the film Icons of Evolution with cultures of bacteria exposed to antibiotics. The kind of resistance conferred by specialized enzymes able to disable the agent, however, require specific genetic information that appears designed. Too little is known at this point, but these articles uncover the possibility that genetic information that confers antibiotic resistance is already present in the environmental resistome. If so, this undermines a commonly-used evidence for evolution.(Visited 11 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Click arrow to play slideshowVideo: World Cup People’s Bus (1) 23 February 2010 The People’s Bus – an initiative to build public enthusiasm ahead of the 2010 Fifa World Cup – made the first stop on its nationwide tour at Reagile Primary School in Tembisa, north of Johannesburg on Friday. The customised bus – a mobile hub of football trivia and fan gear that will be visiting more than 50 locations across the country between now and the World Cup kickoff on 11 June – was met with huge enthusiasm by the kids at Reagile. Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material Brand South Africa and MAN Truck and Bus, joint drivers of the initiative, have scheduled People’s Bus stops across all nine provinces and their smallest cities and towns, including Dullstroom in Mpumalanga, Upington in the Northern Cape, Bhisho in the Eastern Cape, and Ulundi in KwaZulu-Natal. “Taking the People’s Bus into the country areas and smaller towns and cities will enable us to spread the World Cup experience to as many South Africans as possible,” said Brand South Africa Acting CEO Paul Bannister. SAinfo reporter
16 May 2014 Springbok Women’s Sevens coach Renfred Dazel on Thursday said he had high hopes for his team at the IRB Women’s Sevens world series event in Amsterdam as they completed their preparations for their toughest assignment of the year.Challenging pool Playing in their only World Series event of the season, the Springbok Women will face Russia, Australia and France in a challenging pool, with Australia posing the biggest threat as they are only two points behind Women’s World Series log leaders New Zealand going into the final leg of the competition. Russia, meanwhile, are also among the eight core teams on the World Series circuit and tied for fourth place in the standings with England. France participated in the Dubai and China tournaments, and will draw confidence from their victory against Dazel’s team in the Hong Kong Invitational plate semifinal in March. The tournament will run over two days.A tough onslaught Given the high quality of the opposition, Dazel expects a tough onslaught, but he was excited to see his team in action against some of the best sides in the world. “Australia plays a good running style of rugby and they have skilful players, so we are expecting a good challenge against them,” said Dazel. “Russia, on the other hand, plays a more physical game and they have some speed, so the contrast between those two attributes is something we will have to watch out for. “France, meanwhile, play a unique style of rugby, which is very different to last season. We faced them in Hong Kong and we were not successful on that occasion, so the players are hungry to give it another go.”Seeking improvement The Springbok Women’s Sevens won only one of their five matches at last year’s Amsterdam World Series event, but Dazel said he was keen to see a vastly improved showing from his charges in the next two days. “We certainly hope to deliver a much better performance this year because I believe as a team we have a better understanding of the game,” he said. “We are currently in a centralised training program, which involves spending a fair amount of time on conditioning and technical skills, so we are better prepared than last season.”Women’s World Series qualification While the team’s performance will not have a direct influence on their path to qualify for the 2016 Rio Olympic Games, Dazel said a good performance would be vital to boost the team’s confidence ahead of the qualifiers for the 2014/2015 IRB Women’s World Series, which are expected to be held in France later this year. The top four teams on the 2014/2015 World Series log at the conclusion of the competition will qualify automatically for the Olympic Games. “The tournament will definitely give us a good idea of where we are compared to the teams on the World Series circuit and it will also provide a platform from which we can build going into the qualifiers,” Dazel concluded.SPRINGBOK WOMEN’S SEVENS SQUAD Lorinda Brown, Rachelle Geldenhuys, Nosiphiwo Goda, Veroeshka Grain, Zenay Jordaan (captain), Jacqueline Kriel, Nomaphelo Mayongo, Lamla Momoti, Zintle Mpupha, Marithy Pienaar, Fundiswa Plaatjie, Vuyolwethu Vazi SAinfo reporter
Pep Guardiola apologised for Manchester City’s part in the ugly mass brawl that disfigured the end of their 3-1 defeat by Chelsea on Saturday as he contemplated his most problematic day in the Premier League.While Guardiola talked of his regret about the melee that saw City pair Sergio Aguero and Fernandinho sent off in stoppage time, rival manager Antonio Conte praised his team’s character.Chelsea came from 1-0 down to record an eighth straight win and move four points clear at the top but City’s failure to capitalise when they were dominating the game led to their players losing their heads at the Etihad Stadium.Aguero was sent off for a wild knee-high tackle on David Luiz, prompting widespread anger on the touchline.With players and staff from both teams wading in to scuffle and referee Anthony Taylor in danger of losing control, Fernandinho also saw red for pushing Cesc Fabregas over an advertising hoarding.”It is a pity the game finished like this,” Guardiola told the BBC. “I don’t like that and I apologise for what happened.”I don’t think Aguero’s challenge is intentional. Both players were strong, that is all. Then Fernandinho went over to defend his team mate.”Fernandinho is now suspended for three matches and Aguero faces a possible four-match ban.Reuters Photo”We didn’t win because we missed a lot of chances, not because of the referee’s decisions,” Spaniard Guardiola said, frustrated at how his side had missed excellent opportunities to seal the win when they led 1-0 through a Gary Cahill own goal.advertisement”In the boxes we are not strong enough. It is a problem we have had all season. It is difficult for us to score goals and we concede them very easily.”Italian Conte was thrilled with Chelsea’s discipline and character amid the chaos, with even the hot-headed Diego Costa, who equalised with his 11th league goal of the season, trying to act as an unlikely peacemaker during the scuffle.”Diego is showing he is using his passion in the right way and I’m very happy about that,” Conte said.”I saw lots of character from my team and that’s very important to grow. But we must continue to work and improve.”
TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say REVEALED: Europe’s big 5 in talks with Arsenal midfielder Ramseyby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveAaron Ramsey is in talks with five of Europe’s biggest clubs about a move away from Arsenal, it has been claimed.BBC Sport says starting from January 1, the opening of the transfer window, Ramsey is able to negotiate and sign a pre-contract agreement with foreign sides.The Welshman is considering moves to PSG, Real Madrid, Inter Milan, Juventus, and Bayern Munich.Over the past week speculation over Ramsey’s future destination has stepped up, with Juventus being the current most likely club to acquire his services. The 28-year-old is reportedly ‘increasingly tempted’ by a move to Turin and the Italian champions.
Chelsea boss Sarri: Willian and Hudson-Odoi must stayby Paul Vegas9 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveChelsea boss Maurizio Sarri says Willian must stay after he proved the matchwinner against Newcastle.Willian is being linked with Barcelona.But Sarri says: “Willian, for us, is a very important player. As I said yesterday in the press conference, in my opinion he has to stay with us. He’s very important player, like Pedro.”Hudson-Odoi is becoming a very important player so with Eden like a striker today, we need wingers, so we need Pedro, Hudson-Odoi and Willian, of course. At this moment he’s a fundamental player.” TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
About the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say Robertson wants ‘complete performance’ from Liverpool against Leicesterby Freddie Taylor21 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool full back Andy Robertson wants to see his side give the perfect performance at the weekend.The Reds are facing off against high flying an in form Leicester City on Saturday afternoon.And Robertson believes that the Reds, who have a 100 percent record in the league so far, need to prove their title credentials against a tough opponent.He also spoke about their recent 4-3 win over RB Salzburg in the Champions League.Robertson told reporters: “At three-nil up and you think you are going to be comfortable but we started probably doing things we shouldn’t have done, we let them back into the game and they are a good team. That’s why that happened.”Then when we went to 3-3 and to show the character we did was important. But we need to sort out that 50-minute period when we weren’t good enough.”We have had a lot of away games but so far, so good but we need to get better and that is the pressure we put on ourselves.”We have got results but today could have been different, Saturday could have been different so we need to look at that and we need to play better.”But when you don’t play well it is important to get results and that’s what we have done. We were very good first half but we need a complete performance and we need that on Saturday.”
Story Highlights Dr. Tufton said the report, which is “long overdue” brings into sharp focus the need for “greater emphasis on prevention as opposed to the curative approach”. The study indicates that personnel at public hospitals islandwide attended to more than 25,000 violence-related injuries, 13,000 resulting from traffic accidents, and 500 emanating from attempted suicide during the period. Health Minister, Dr. the Hon. Christopher Tufton, has welcomed a report that highlights the significant costs associated with treating trauma-related cases in the public health system. Health Minister, Dr. the Hon. Christopher Tufton, has welcomed a report that highlights the significant costs associated with treating trauma-related cases in the public health system.The Cost of Care report, which was launched on Wednesday (December 6) at the University of the West Indies (UWI) regional headquarters in Mona, St. Andrew, shows that the direct and indirect medical cost of treating injuries at public facilities resulting from violence, road traffic crashes and attempted suicides in 2014 totalled $12.6 billion.The study indicates that personnel at public hospitals islandwide attended to more than 25,000 violence-related injuries, 13,000 resulting from traffic accidents, and 500 emanating from attempted suicide during the period.It was prepared by the Violence Prevention Alliance in collaboration with the Health Ministry, University Hospital of the West Indies, Mona GeoInformatics Institute; JN Foundation, and the UWI.Dr. Tufton said the report, which is “long overdue” brings into sharp focus the need for “greater emphasis on prevention as opposed to the curative approach”.Noting that trauma cases account for 59 per cent of the Ministry’s resources, he said that the money can be routed into supporting cases that “we cannot avoid”.“More often than not, we place too little effort on the preventative side. What the study does is to provide the support for placing more resources and effort on prevention (because) prevention is, indeed, better than cure,” the Minister added.He said the report also provides better understanding of the impact of trauma-related costs on individuals, families and the country.“We support the work that has been done, and one of the things that we would like to do is discuss some of the possible solutions because, while it is important for us to help persons to understand the nature and extent of the problem, it is equally important for us to help them to appreciate their own role in securing themselves and helping us to solve the problem,” the Minister said.Dr. Tufton noted that public education around this issue has to be a “critical part of the solution” adding that “we are going to have to also work together and focus, now, on the real solutions”.The report, he contended, “will also add to the strategies that have to be employed, and, as a consequence, we are engaged and will continue to be so in the years ahead”.
Last week, non-profit organization, Little Kids Rock, hosted its fifth annual Right to Rock benefit to ensure the gift of musical education remains in America’s most economically challenged public schools.For her continued dedication to music education in the classroom Darlene Love was presented with the Big Man of the Year Award during the Right to Rock BenefiThe event generated over $850,000 in donations, which will help fund music lessons and instruments for 15,000 additional children in disadvantaged public schools across the United States. Darlene Love, Rock and Roll Hall of Famer and star of “Twenty Feet from Stardom,” was honored for her tireless effort to help keep music in the classroom with the organization’s “Big Man of the Year” award.In addition to the funds raised, Little Kids Rock founder, Dave Wish, announced a $4.5 million initiative to bring music education to 60,000 kids in 600 schools in New York City. Details of this program to be announced.“At the end of the day, when the musical performances are over and the crowd has left, the children are what remain,” said Wish. “We are dedicated to providing a creative outlet for students, one that allows them to become self-confident, to transform their lives. Music is that outlet.”The night began with opening remarks from Jake Clemons, whose late uncle, Clarence Clemons, was the inspiration behind the “Big Man of the Year Award.” Love was joined onstage by student musicians from Franklin L. Williams Middle School in Jersey City, N.J as well as friends and fellow musicians Elvis Costello, Bill Medley, Brian Wilson, Paul Shaffer and Steven Van Zandt.Jim Allen, chairman of Hard Rock International, was also honored for his continued support of the organization. Hard Rock International sponsored the 2012 Right to Rock Benefit, which honored Steve Van Zandt as the “Big Man of the Year.” Van Zandt, an honorary board member of Little Kids Rock and avid supporter of music education through his Rock and Roll Forever Foundation, was the musical director of this year’s production.And since it’s all about the kids, Little Kids Rock student Ashley Nunez, a fourth-grader at P.S. 98 in Manhattan, took the stage with fellow classmates to perform an original song they wrote about Hurricane Sandy, “She’s Got a Lot Going On.”“Since joining the program three years ago, Little Kids Rock has been a haven for me,” said Nunez. “Writing and playing music has allowed me to express how I feel, take more risks, and know that it is ok to make mistakes.”Fellow student musicians from Jersey City performed a mash-up of some of today’s most popular songs by chart toppers like Bruno Mars and Alicia Keys.With Steven Van Zandt on lead guitar, Brian Wilson kicked off the star-studded musical lineup with “California Girls,” and was joined by the night’s “Big Man” for “God Only Knows” and “Don’t Worry Baby.” Elvis Costello brought the house down with “Not too Young to Get Married.”Love was in the air when the night’s honoree teamed up with Bill Medley on a rousing duet performance of “You’ve Lost That Loving Feeling,” which brought the crowd to its feet to dance and sing along.The night concluded with an epic performance by Love, who was joined onstage by many of the evening’s performers, including special guest Paul Shaffer, to sing her classic, “Christmas (Baby Please Come Home).”The evening’s success was due in large part to the dedication and support of advisory board members Maureen Van Zandt and Steven Van Zandt, Little Kids Rock’s dinner committee (the “Right to Rock Roadies”), and the volunteers who worked tirelessly to make the event such a success. Presenting sponsor, Beats by Dre, as well as lead sponsor, Hard Rock International, also helped to make the benefit possible.Source:PR Newswire
APTN National NewsFacing explosive allegations of abuse, John Furlong, CEO of the Vancouver Olympic Committee, held a press conference to deny he mistreated First Nations students while a Catholic missionary.Furlong attacked the journalist who wrote the story and claimed he had been approached in the past by someone asking for money to make the allegations go away.